On 29 June, the Indian government banned 59 widely used Chinese mobile phone and office applications in response to rising tensions and escalating diplomatic disputes between the two nations.  On 19 August, the Times of India reported that the Indian Ministry of Foreign Affairs had been informed that visas for chinese businessmen, academics, industry experts and representatives of interests would require prior security clearance, and that the measures were similar to those long used in Pakistan.  On 19 September, Indian police arrested an independent journalist for passing sensitive information to the Chinese secret services.  Cultural and economic relations between China and India date back to antiquity. The Silk Road has not only served as an important trade route between India and China, but is also credited with facilitating the spread of Buddhism from India to East Asia.  In the 19th century, China participated in an increasing opium trade with the East India Company, which exported opium grown in India.   During World War II, British India and the Republic of China played a decisive role in mastering the progress of imperial Japan.  The Government of the Republic of India and the Central Government of the People`s Republic of China, which wish to promote trade and cultural exchanges between the Tibetan region of China and India and facilitate the pilgrimages and travel of the peoples of China and India, have decided to conclude this agreement on the basis of the following principles : EXCELLENCY , I have the honour to declare that, in Beijing, on April 29, 1954, the representatives of the two respective governments, for the Government of the Republic of India, an agreement was signed between the Government of the Republic of India and the Central Government of the People`s Republic of China on Trade and Transport between China and India. His Excellency Nedyam Raghavan, Extraordinary Ambassador and Plenipotentiary of India, For the Central Government of the People`s Republic of China, His Excellency Chang Han-fu, What agreement, word for word, reproduced from annexors on this subject, the border disputes gave rise, on 20 October 1962, to a brief border war between the People`s Republic of China and India.
 [Page required] The border fight led to a total defeat of India when the People`s Republic of China pushed the Indian armed forces 48 km from the plains of Assam in the northeast. It also held strategic points in the Aksai Chin and Demchok regions of Ladakh, before declaring a unilateral ceasefire on 21 November. She said she had withdrawn 20 km behind her controlled control line. India has contradicted this assertion. China-India relations (Chinese: 印度关; Hindi: भारत-चीन सम्बन्ध), also known as Sino-Indian relations or Indo-Chinese relations, refers to bilateral relations between China and India. The tone of the relationship has changed over time; the two nations have sought economic cooperation, while frequent border conflicts and economic nationalism are a major point of disagreement in both countries.