If we compare the evolution of average import values for decades (Table 2), we record the largest increase between 2000 and 2010-2010-2011 for all wines (up 95%). Differences appear between market segments: since 1990, some wines have grown faster than others. Sparkling and bottled wines increased the most [24, 25]: bottled wines doubled between 1990 and 2000/01 and from 2000 to 2010/11, while they increased by 9% in 2015-16. Mass wine tripled from 2000-01 to 2010/11 , while musts increased from 1990-91 to 2000-01 (up 23%) a gradual downward trend. With a market share of 17% in 2019, Canada is the third largest export destination for English and Welsh wine. The country is also the 15th largest export market for Scotch whisky, with $94.4 million delivered last year, or 5.7% over the previous year. We have found that bilateral trade agreements promote trade: increase wine imports. In addition, we show that the effects of SS on all market segments (Sparkling, Bottled and Bulk) are similar (and significant). TBTs prefer (crucing) bottled (mass) wine. Pre-shipment controls are relevant to bottled wine. The pattern of world trade has changed considerably over time (Table 3): trade between OWP has declined significantly (from 65% to 27% in 1996-2016) in the benefit of a significant increase in NWP imports (from 22% to 44% in OWP and from 4% to 21% from NWP 1996-2016). In 2016, global imports will be absorbed by the NWP for 65% and by North for 77% .
Changes in the relevance of country groups in the global wine market are significant: NWP has gained more and more market share, driven by North (z.B USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand). Bilateral types of NMs for wine imports differ according to trade patterns (Table 5). bilateral NTMs, which have been implemented by NWP, more than tripled in the period 1996-2016 (from 76 to 240 in the NWP-OWP-Handel, from 81 to 300 in the NWP-NWP-NWP-Handel) , while OWP generally applies import duties instead of bilateral [27, 28]. Governments have significantly increased the use of technical measures to protect domestic markets : in 2016, North implemented 126 TBs compared to other industrialized countries (59%). and 87 TB To regulate imports from the South (41%) . There is almost no use of SPS (in 2016, 6 SPS were introduced worldwide): in general, they relate to the trade in fresh produce .